In fact, it often happens that a nation is deprived of its subjectivity, that is to say the "sovereignty" which is its right, in its economic, political-social and in a certain way cultural significance, since in a national community all these dimensions of life are bound together. When individuals and communities do not see a rigorous respect for the moral, cultural and spiritual requirements, based on the dignity of the person and on the proper identity of each community, beginning with the family and religious societies, then all the rest - availability of goods, abundance of technical resources applied to daily life, a certain level of material well-being - will prove unsatisfying and in the end contemptible. Jn 13:35). This geographical terminology is only indicative, since one cannot ignore the fact that the frontiers of wealth and poverty intersect within the societies themselves, whether developed or developing. This is the so-called civilization of "consumption" or " consumerism ," which involves so much "throwing-away" and "waste." Solicitudo rei socialis gabrielita1819. On the contrary, it means that the problems in industrial enterprises or in the workers' and union movements of a particular country or region are not to be considered as isolated cases with no connection. Every individual is called upon to play his or her part in this peaceful campaign, a campaign to be conducted by peaceful means, in order to secure development in peace, in order to safeguard nature itself and the world about us. Such an idea - linked to a notion of "progress" with philosophical connotations deriving from the Enlightenment, rather than to the notion of "development"50 which is used in a specifically economic and social sense - now seems to be seriously called into doubt, particularly since the tragic experience of the two world wars, the planned and partly achieved destruction of whole peoples, and the looming atomic peril. The social context in which we live today cannot be said to be completely identical to that of twenty years ago. This is to be accomplished within the framework of obedience to the divine law and therefore with respect for the image received, the image which is the clear foundation of the power of dominion recognized as belonging to man as the means to his perfection (cf. 1. Such a situation has its consequences also from the point of view of the "rights of the individual nations." There exists, too, a kind of international division of labor, whereby the low-cost products of certain countries which lack effective labor laws or which are too weak to apply them are sold in other parts of the world at considerable profit for the companies engaged in this form of production, which knows no frontiers. Today perhaps more than in the past, people are realizing that they are linked together by a common destiny, which is to be constructed together, if catastrophe for all is to be avoided. I am certain that the concern expressed in this Encyclical as well as the motives inspiring it will be familiar to them, for these motives are inspired by the Gospel of Jesus Christ. If a nation were to succumb more or less deliberately to the temptation to close in upon itself and failed to meet the responsibilities following from its superior position in the community of nations, it would fall seriously short of its clear ethical duty. But first I wish to say a few words about the date of publication; the year 1967. The characteristics of full development, one which is "more human" and able to sustain itself at the level of the true vocation of men and women without denying economic requirements, were described by Paul VI.53. In it, the pontiff elaborates on Catholic social teaching and applies its principles to the problem of under-developed and developing nations. For the decisions which either accelerate or slow down the development of peoples are really political in character. 46. Central to this social teaching is that all aspects of social action must "respect and promote all the dimensions of the human person." One must immediately add that in the northern hemisphere the nature of this problem is reversed: here, the cause for concern is the drop in the birthrate, with repercussions on the aging of the population, unable even to renew itself biologically. In the Second Vatican Council's Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World, Gaudium et Spes(Latin for "Joy and Hope"), it is written that from the moment of its conception life must be guarded with the greatest care.". Lk 16:21). In him God wished to conquer sin and make it serve our greater good,56 which infinitely surpasses what progress could achieve. Each of the two blocs harbors in its own way a tendency towards imperialism, as it is usually called, or towards forms of new- colonialism: an easy temptation to which they frequently succumb, as history, including recent history, teaches. The Pope did a classical and spirit filling exposure of the social aspect of the Church. Peoples excluded from the fair distribution of the goods originally destined for all could ask themselves: why not respond with violence to those who first treat us with violence? If "development is the new name for peace," war and military preparations are the major enemy of the integral development of peoples. In this way, the solidarity which we propose is the path to peace and at the same time to development. Today this is called ecological concern. One can certainly speak of "selfishness" and of "shortsightedness," of "mistaken political calculations" and "imprudent economic decisions." On the contrary, one must take into account the nature of each being and of its mutual connection in an ordered system, which is precisely the cosmos.". As the recent document of the Pontifical Commission Iustitia et Pax states,40 these observations should make us reflect on the ethical character of the interdependence of peoples. This is even more serious given the difficulties which often hinder the direct transfer of capital set aside for helping needy countries. It is an imperative which obliges each and every man and woman, as well as societies and nations. Each of the two ideologies, on the basis of two very different visions of man and of his freedom and social role, has proposed and still promotes, on the economic level, antithetical forms of the organization of labor and of the structures of ownership, especially with regard to the so-called means of production. There is no justification then for despair or pessimism or inertia. Each must likewise realize its true needs, as well as the rights and duties which oblige it to respond to them. In fact, the Encyclical Mater et Magistra of Pope John XXIII had already entered into this wider outlook,21 and the Council had echoed the same in the Constitution Gaudium et Spes.22 However, the social teaching of the Church had not yet reached the point of affirming with such clarity that the social question has acquired a worldwide dimension,23 nor had this affirmation and the accompanying analysis yet been made into a "directive for action," as Paul VI did in his Encyclical. In order to be genuine, development must be achieved within the framework of solidarity and freedom, without ever sacrificing either of them under whatever pretext. Indeed, as a result of a sort of internal dynamic and under the impulse of mechanisms which can only be called perverse, this interdependence triggers negative effects even in the rich countries. Thus it should be obvious that development either becomes shared in common by every part of the world or it undergoes a process of regression even in zones marked by constant progress. Unfortunately, after analyzing the situation we have to conclude that this political will has been insufficient. I. In the modern world - where starvation claims so many victims, especially among the very young - there are examples of not particularly developed nations which have nevertheless achieved the goal of food self-sufficiency and have even become food exporters. He pointed to the divisions, both East-West and North-South, which were … This is not however the sole motive or even the most important one. ters" ( Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, henceforth to be referred to as Sollici-tudo). Thirty years ago, in late December of 1987, St. John Paul II promulgated his encyclical Sollicitudo rei Socialis, or On Social Concern. It deals once more with the theme of development along two fundamental lines: 1) the failed development of the Third World and 2) the meaning of, conditions and requirements for a development of a worthy person. The political opposition, in turn, takes its origin from a deeper Opposition which is ideological in nature. Each must discover and use to the best advantage its own area of freedom. Faced with a combination of factors which are undoubtedly complex, we cannot hope to achieve a comprehensive analysis here. SOLLICITUDO REI SOCIALIS “Social Concern” Pope John Paul II To the Bishops, Priests, Religious Families, sons and daughters of the Church and all people of good will for the twentieth anniversary of Populorum Progressio Blessing Venerable Brothers and dear Sons and Daughters, Health and the Apostolic Blessing! Gen 1:26-30; 2:15-16; Wis 9:2-3). We are all called, indeed obliged, to face the tremendous challenge of the last decade of the second Millennium, also because the present dangers threaten everyone: a world economic crisis, a war without frontiers, without winners or losers.

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